Development of Android-Based Virtual Laboratory to Improve Critical Thinking Ability on Reaction Rate Materials

Abdul Hadi, Muh. Amir Masruhim, Yuli Hartati


Virtual laboratories can be used as an alternative to practicum activities in online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to develop an android-based virtual laboratory to improve critical thinking skills on valid, effective, and practical reaction rate materials. The development model used is Research and Development according to Sugiyono with stages namely potential and problems, data collection, product design, design validation, design revision, product testing, product revision, usage trial, product revision, and final product. The respondents of this study were students of class XI-IPA as many as 90 students of SMA Negeri 2 Unggulan Tanah Grogot. Data collection techniques have been used in the form of tests and non-tests, research instruments for pretest and posttest, as well as validation questionnaires and student responses. The data analysis technique used qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the analysis show that the validation of the expert team's assessment is an average of 95.98% with very valid criteria, effectiveness based on the results of the analysis of the pretest and posttest scores, the average N-Gain score is 0.77 with high or effective criteria, practicality based on the results of questionnaire analysis The average student response is 94.11% with very practical criteria. Thus the android-based virtual laboratory developed is feasible to improve critical thinking skills and as a medium for learning chemistry class XI-IPA.


virtual laboratory; android; critical thinking

Full Text:



Ahmed, S., Shehata, M., & Hassanien, M. (2020). Emerging Faculty Needs for Enhancing Student Engagement on a Virtual Platform. MedEdPublish, 9(1).

Akker, J. van den. 1999. Principles and Methods of Development Research. In Plomp, T; Nieveen, N; Gustafson, K; Branch, RM; and van den Akker, J (eds). Design Approaches and Tools in Education and Training. London: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Ambusaidi, A., Al Musawi, A., Al-Balushi, S., & Al-Balushi, K. (2018). The impact of virtual lab learning experiences on 9th-grade students' achievement and their attitudes towards science and learning by the virtual lab. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 15(2), 13–29.

Angelo, Thomas A. & Cross, Patricia (1995). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd edition

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2010. Research Procedures A Practical Approach. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.

Azzahra, SF (2019). Improving Students' Critical Thinking Ability Through Experimental Learning on Electrolyte and Non-Electrolyte Solutions. Journal of EduMatScience, 4(1), 77–88.

Bortnik, B., Stozhko, N., Pervukhina, I., Tchernysheva, A., & Belysheva, G. (2017). Effect of Virtual Analytical Chemistry Laboratory on Enhancing Student Research Skills and Practices. Research in Learning Technology, 25 , 1-20

Bujeng, B., Kamis, A., Hussain, MAM, Rahim, MB, & Soenarto, S. (2019). Validity and reliability of multimedia interactive making clothes (MIMP) module for home science subjects. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(8 S), 593–596.

Chen, C., Jones, KT, & Xu, S. (2018). The association between students' style of learning preferences, social presence, collaborative learning, and learning outcomes. Journal of Educators Online, 15(1).

Dwiningsih, K., Sukamin, Muchlis, & Rahma, PT (2018). Development of Chemistry Learning Media Using Virtual Laboratory Media Based on the Learning Paradigm in the Global Era. Kwangsan: Journal of Educational Technology, 06 (02), 156-176.

Elisa, E., Wiratmaja, IG, Nugraha, INP, & Dantes, KR (2021). Development of Engineering Chemistry Virtual Laboratory to Improve Students' Critical Thinking Skills and Science Process. In Journal of The Indonesian Society of Integrated Chemistry 12 (2), 55–61.

Ennis, RH 1996. A Critical Thinking. New York: Freeman.

Ennis, RH 2015. Critical Thinking Assessment. Taylor and Francis. 32 (3) pp.179-186.

Fabregat-Sanjuan, A., Pàmies-Vilà, R., Piera, FF, & De la Flor, S. (2017). Laboratory 3.0: Manufacturing technologies laboratory virtualization with a student-centered methodology. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 7(2), 184–202.

Facione. (2013). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. Millbrae, CA: Measured Reasons and The California Academic Press

Firmyanti, Lilis. 2011. The Effect of Using Virtual Physics Laboratory in Different Group Sizes on Student Learning Outcomes on the Concept of Static Electricity. Thesis. Surabaya: PPs Unesa.

Fisher, A. 2008. Critical Thinking. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Gambari, AI, Kawu, H., & Falode, OC (2018). Impact of Virtual Laboratory on the Achievement of Secondary School Chemistry Students in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Collaborative Environments. Contemporary Educational Technology, 9 (3), 246–263.

Ghavifekr, S., & Rosdy, WAW (2015). Teaching and learning with technology: Effectiveness of ICT integration in schools. International Journal of Research in Education and Science, 1(2), 175–191.

Hake, R, R. (1999). Analyzing Change/Gain Scores. AREA-D American Education Research Association's Division. D, Measurement and Research Methodology.

Harlinda Fatmawati, et al. 2014. "Analysis of Students' Critical Thinking in Solving Mathematical Problems Based on Polya on the Quadratic Equation material". Electronic Journal of Mathematics Learning. ISSN 2339-1685. Vol. 2, No. 9.

Hawkins, I. & Phelps, AJ 2013. Virtual laboratory vs. traditional laboratory: which is more effective for teaching electrochemistry? Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 14, 516–523.

Herliandry, LD, Nurhasanah, N., Suban, ME, & Kuswanto, H. (2020). Lessons Learned During the Covid-19 Pandemic JTP - Journal of Educational Technology, 22(1), 65–70.

Hikmah, N., Saridewi, N., & Agung, S. (2017). Application of Virtual Laboratory to Improve Student Concept Understanding. EduChemia (Journal of Chemistry and Education), 2 (2), 186.

Jagodziński, P., & Wolski, R. (2015). Assessment of Application Technology of Natural User Interfaces in the Creation of a Virtual Chemical Laboratory. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 24(1), 16–28.

Kahveci, M., & Orgill, MK (2015). Affective dimensions in chemistry education. Affective Dimensions in Chemistry Education, 1-318.

Karlinda, DF 2013. Comparison of Science Process Skills (Kps) and Learning Outcomes between Learning Using Real and Virtual Laboratory Experimental Methods on Students' Initial Ability in Dynamic Electrical Materials. (Thesis). Lampung University. Bandar Lampung.

Kasman, AD 2015. Android Collaboration Tricks with PHP & MySQL. Jogjakarta: Loko Media

Lutfi, A. (2017). Development of Computer-equipped Virtual Laboratory Media to Practice Critical Thinking in Acid, Base, and Salt Learning. Unesa Journal of Mathematics and Science Education Research, 1(1), 27–33.

Mahanta, A.; Sarma, KK. (2012). Online Resource and ICT Aided Virtual Laboratory Setup. International Journal of Computer Applications, 52(6), 44-48.

Makransky, G., Thisgaard, MW, & Gadegaard, H. (2016). Virtual simulations as preparation for lab exercises: Assessing learning of key laboratory skills in microbiology and improvement of essential non-cognitive skills. PLoS ONE, 11(6), 1–11.

Manikowati, & Iskandar, D. (2018). Development of Mobile Virtual Laboratory for Practicum Learning for High School Students. Kwangsan: Journal of Educational Technology, 06 (01), 23–42.

Mataka, LM, & Kowalske, MG (2015). The influence of PBL on students' self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 16(4), 929–938.

Muchson, M., Munzil, M., Winarni, BE, & Agusningtyas, D. (2018). Android-Based Virtual Lab Development on Acid-Base Materials for High School Students. J-PEK (Journal of Chemistry Learning), 4(1), 51–64.

Musyaillah, D., Muhab, S., & Yusmaniar. (2017). The Effect of Virtual Laboratory Integration in Problem Solving Learning Models on Students' Critical Thinking Skills on Dual Electrolyte and Non-Electrolyte Solutions. Journal of Chemical Education Research, 7(1), 38–51.

Nazar, M., Oktarina, A., & Puspita, K. (2020). Development of Android-Based Interactive Learning Applications to Assist Students in Studying Electrolyte and Nonelectrolyte Solutions. Indonesian Journal of Science Education, 8(1), 39–54.

Nieveen, N. 1999. Prototyping to Reach Product Quality. Jan Van den Akker, Robert Maribe Braneh, Kent Gustafson, and Tjeerd Plomp (Ed), London: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Prasetyowati, EN, & Suyatno. (2016). Improving the Mastery of Concepts and Critical Thinking Skills of Students through the Implementation of the Inquiry Learning Model on the Main Material of the Buffer Solution. Journal of Chemistry and Chemistry Education (JKPK), 1(1), 67–74.

Putratama, F., & Efkar, T. (2019). The Effect of Experimental Methods on Improving Critical Thinking Skills and Mastery of Thermochemical Concepts. 1, 25–37.

Putri, A., Syakbaniah, & Yulkifli. 2013. Development of Virtual Laboratory on Kinematics Material with Vector Analysis in Physics Learning in Class XII SMA. Pillars of Physics Education. 1(1), 23-29.

Raharjo, SB 2016. Experimental-Based Chemistry 1 for SMA and MA Class X. Solo: PT Tiga Seragkai Pustaka Mandiri

Saleh, A., Mujahiddin. (2020). Challenges and Opportunities for Community Empowerment Practices in Indonesia during the Covid-19 Pandemic through Strengthening the Role of Higher Education. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal (BIRCI-Journal). Volume 3, No 2, Page: 1105-1113

Saputra, P., & Priyambodo, E. (2018). Development of an Android-Based Virtual Laboratory on Acid & Base Materials as a Source of Independent Learning for SMA/MA Students. Journal of Chemistry Learning, 7(2), 94–102.

Solihah, Attus, Yektyastusi, R., Prasetyo, YD, Sugiyarto, KH, & Ikhsan, J. (2015). Development of Android-Based Chemistry Learning Media as a Supplement to Acid-Base Materials Based on the 2013 Curriculum. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Science Education, 2015–2457.

Sugiana, IN, Harjono, A., Sahidu, H., & Gunawan, G. (2017). The Influence of Virtual Laboratory Media Assisted Generative Learning Model on Students' Mastery of Physics Concepts on Momentum and Impulse Materials. Journal of Physics and Technology Education, 2(2), 61.

Sugiyono. (2017) Research and Development Research and Development Methods ”, Bandung: Alfabeta.

Suprapto, N., Abidah, A., Dwiningsih, K., Jauhariyah, MNR, & Saputra, A. (2018). Minimizing misconceptions of ionization energy through a three-tier diagnostic test. Periodico Tche Quimica, 15(30), 387–396.

Suryanti, Arifin, ISZ, & His Majesty, U. (2018). The Application of Inquiry Learning to Train Critical Thinking Skills on Light Material of Primary School Students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1108(1).

Shukri, S. 1999. Basic Chemistry Volume 2, Bandung: ITB Publisher.

Tatli, Z. & Ayas, A. 2010. Virtual laboratory applications in chemistry education. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 938–942.

Wahyuni, TR, & Atun, S. (2019). Development of Virtual Laboratory Media Based on Inquiry for Electrolyte and Non-Electrolyte Solutions. Journal of Education: Theory, Research, And Development, 4(5), 674–686.

Widowati, A., Nurohman, S., & Setyowarno, D. (2017). Development of Inquiry-Based Science Virtual Laboratory for Improving Student Thinking Skills of Junior High School. Journal of Mathematics Education And Science, 5 (2), 170±177.

Wulandari, N., & Vebrianto, R. (2017). Literature Study of Problem-Based Chemistry Learning in terms of Ability to Use Virtual Laboratory. National Seminar on Information, Communication and Industry Technology (SNTIK) 9, 709


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 94 times
PDF - 59 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.