Prognostic Factor of H-Zone Area in Basal Cell Carcinoma

Prasetyadi Mawardi, Irfany Arafiasetyanto Prihadi, Muhammad Eko Irawanto


The study data were taken from secondary data obtained from medical records of BCC patients in Dr. Moewardi Hospital. The data were categorized based on gender, age, occupation, predilection/ location of tumor based on Baxter criteria, which divided the area into H-zone dan non-H-zone. H-zone was described to cover temporal, auricular, orbital, nasal, upper mandibular. Whereas the tumor size was divided into two, less than 2 cm and more than 2 cm. H-zone is a predilection with a high risk toward tumor biological characteristics, such as recurrence risk, aggressivity risk, and tumor infiltrative. The study obtained an ethics clearance from Health Research Ethics Committee of Dr. Moewardi Hospital with number 762/VIII/HREC/2021. The analysis was conducted to test whether there was a correlation or effect between two variables or more. In the study, the researcher also conducted statistics test to measure the correlation intensity of two variables or more by using Chi-square (X2), statistics test was conducted by using SPSS 22 for Windows. 99 patients were obtained from the medical records however only 70 patients who met the study requirements, who were subsequently categorized based on gender, age, occupation, BCC location and size, disease duration. 29 patients were excluded due to incomplete medical records (BCC location, BCC size, and treatment history were not found) non-primary BCC, data duplication, patients with more than one medical records, the result of histopathological test did not indicate seborrheic keratosis and Squamosa Cell Carcinoma. Based on the study there were more female patients compared to male patients. it discovered 45 female patients and 25 male patients (64,3% compared to 35,7%), with the age range was from 22-90 years, the BCC tumor was endured for more than 2 years, based on the education most of the patients had primary education background (elementary school and junior high school), the majority occupation of the patients was farmer (30%), followed by housewife (28,57%).


prognostic factor; H-Zone area; basal cell carcinoma

Full Text:



Apalla, Z., Lallas, A., Sotiriou, E., Lazaridou, E. dan Ioannides, D. (2017). Epidemiological trends in skin cancer. Dermatology Practical & Conceptual [online] 7(2).

Arysha, V.O., Santosa, H., and Sanusi, S.R. (2020). The Effect of Extrinsic Motivation on Housewife Actions in IVA Test in the Working Area of Community Health Center at Bandar Kalipah. Britain International of Exact Sciences (BIoEx) Journal Vol. 2 (1): 352-356.

Asgari MM, Moffet HH, Ray GT, Quesenberry CP (2015). Trends in Basal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Identification of High-Risk Subgroups, 1998-2012. JAMA Dermatol 2015, 151: 976-81

Baker, S.R. (2007). Reconstruction of the Nose. Baker Locals Flap in Facial Reconstruction. 2nd ed. British: Mosby Elsevier, pp.415–474.

Bauer A, Diepgen TL, Schmitt J. Is occupational solar ultraviolet irradiation a relevant risk factor for basal cell carcinoma? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological literature. Br J Dermatol 2011; 165: 612-25.

Baxter, J.M., Patel, A.N. dan Varma, S. (2012). Facial basal cell carcinoma. BMJ, 345, pp.e5342–e5342.

Carucci JA & Leffel D. 2008. Basal Cell Carcinoma.In: Wolff K. Goldsmith, Katz, Paller A, Fitzpatric’s dermatology in general medicine. 7th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill: 1036-1041

Cipto H, Suriadiredja A. Tumor Kulit. Dalam: Menaldi SL, Bramono K, Indriatmi W, editor. Ilmu Penyakit Kulit Dan Kelamin. 7th ed. Jakarta: Badan Penerbit FK UI; 2016. .262–276.

Gambichler T, Skrygan M, Hyun J, Bechara F, Tumi S, Altmeyer P, Krenter A. 2006. Cytokine mRNA expression in basal cell carcinoma. Arch Dermatol Res: 218, 141

Guy GP, Machlin SR, Ekwueme DU, Yabroff KR. Prevalence and Costs of Skin Cancer Treatment in the U.S., 2002−2006 and 2007−2011. Am J Prev Med. 2015; 48(2):183–187.

Iannacone MR, Wang W, Stockwell HG, et al. Patterns and timing of sunlight exposure and risk of basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin–a case-control study. BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 417.

Kasumagic-Halilovic, E., Hasic, M. dan Ovcina-Kurtovic, N. (2019). A Clinical Study of Basal Cell Carcinoma. Medical Archives, [online] 73(6), pp.394– 398.

Lanoe J, Goldenberg G. Basal cell carcinoma: A comprehensive review of existing and emerging non surgical therapies. The journal of clinical aesthetic dermatology. 2016; 9 (51): 26- 37

Mawardi, P., Kalim, H., Kalim, K.H., Fitri, L.E., Mintarjo, K., Mudigdo, A. et al. (2016). Mid-face location of primary basal cell carcinoma related to cancer aggressivity. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2016; 6(8): 650-653

Mawardi, P., Kalim, H., Kalim, K.H., Fitri, L.E., Mintarjo, K., Mudigdo A. et al. (2019). The role of protein-53 amyloid in determining the aggressiveness of basal cell carcinoma regulated by interleukin-6, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and basic fibroblast growth factor. Dermatology Reports, 11(11).

Mawardi P, Kalim H, Kalim KH, Fitri LE, Mintarjo K, Mudigdo A. Mid-face location of primary basal cell carcinoma related to cancer aggressivity=. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2016. 2016; 6(8):650–3

Nikmanian, S. (2019). Investigation of Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Dissimilar Welded Joint between 304 Stainless Steel and Pure Copper. Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal Vol 1 (3): 76-82.

Ouhtit A. 2001. A model for UV induction of skin cancer. J Biomed Biotechnol; 1:5-6.

Sangy, S., Ata, F.A.M., and Miryousefiata, F. (2021). Study of Thymus and T- cell Development and Tumor Immunology. Budapest International Research in Exact Sciences (BirEx) Journal Vol 3 (3): 162-170.

Shimizu T. 2010. The role of macrophage inhibitor factor (MIF) in ultraviolet radiation induced carcinogenesis. Cancer; 2:1555-1564.

Tang JY, Epstein, EH Jr., Oro AE. Basal Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. Dalam: Kang S, Amagai M, Bruckner AL, Enk AH, Margolis DJ, McMichael AJ, Orringer AJ. Fitzpatric’s dermatology in general medicine. 9th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill: 2019: 1884-1897.

Tilli, CML, Steensel MAM, Krekels GAM, Neumann HAM, Ramaeker. 2005. Molecular aetiology and pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 152 (6):1108-1124.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 74 times
PDF - 44 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.